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Wednesday, April 26, 2017

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Transformation of Sentences

Transformation of Sentences


Affirmative to Negative:

Rule 1:
Only বা alone এর পরিবর্তে উত্তর বাক্যের শুরুতে None but বসে। আর কোন পরিবর্তন হয়না।
Affirmative: Only he can play good cricket.
Negative: None but he can play good cricket.
Affirmative: Only the science students can apply for the post.
Negative: None but the science students can apply for the post.
Affirmative: Only they can do the work.
Negative: None but they can do the work.
Note: বস্তুর ক্ষেত্রে only এর পরিবর্তে nothing but বসে। তবে বয়সের ক্ষেত্রে বা সংখ্যার ক্ষেত্রে only এর পরিবর্তে not more than বসে।
Affirmative: He is only four.
Negative: He is not more than four.
Affirmative: They have only two cars.
Negative: They have not more than two cars.
Rule 2:
Affirmative sentence এ must থাকলে negative করার সময় must এর পরিবর্তে can not but/ can not help বসে। তবে can not help এর পরে যে verb থাকে তার সাথে ing যুক্ত করতে হয়।
Affirmative: you must yield to your fate.
Negative: You can not but yield to your fate.
Affirmative: We must obey our parents.
Negative: we can not but obey our parents.
Affirmative: you must care them.
Negative: You can not help caring them.
Rule 3:
Every কে Negative করতে হলে every এর পরিবর্তে There is no বসে + every এর পরের শব্দটি বসে + but + প্রদত্ত sentence এর বাকী অংশ।
Affirmative: Everyone hates a terrorist.
Negative: There is no one but hates a terrorist.
Affirmative: Everybody fears a lion.
Negative: There is no body but hates a liar.
Rule 4:
As soon as যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে-
As soon as এর জায়গায় no sooner had বসবে + প্রদত্ত Sentence এর কর্তা বসে + সে Sentence এর মূল verb এর v3 বসে + সে sentence বাকী অংশ বসে + than + দ্বিতীয় বাক্য বসে।
Affirmative: As soon as he he saw the tiger, he ran away.
Negative: No sooner had he seen the Tiger than he ran away.
Affirmative: No sooner had the boy saw the police, he ran away.
Negative: As soon as the boy seen the police than he ran away.
Rule 5:
Affirmative sentence কে Negative করার সময় উক্ত sentence এর Affirmative শব্দটির Negative রূপ বসাতে হয়। এবং উক্ত Negative এর পূর্বে not বসাতে হয়। বাকী সব থিক থাকে।
Affirmative: He is a good man.
Negative: He is not a bad man.
Affirmative: Rakib is an honest boy.
Negative: Rakib is not a dishonest boy.
Affirmative: This was an extra-ordinary ship.
Negative: This was not an ordinary ship.
Rule 6:
Always যুক্ত Affirmative sentence কে Negative করতে হলে Always এর পরিবর্তে never বসে। Affirmative শব্দটির Negative রূপ বসাতে হয়।
Affirmative: He was always punctual.
Negative: He was never late.
Affirmative: I always tell truth.
Negative: I never tell lie.
Rule 7:
Superlative degree যুক্ত Affirmative sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
No other + superlative এর পরের অংশ + verb + as + superlative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is the best batsman in the team.
Negative: No other batsman in the team is as good as he.
Affirmative: You are the best boy in the class.
Negative: No other boy in the class is as good as you.
Rule 8:
Than any other/than all other যুক্ত comparative degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
No other + any other/all other এর পরের অংশ বসে + প্রদত্ত verb + so/as বসে + comparative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is better than any other boy in the class.
Negative: No other boy in the class is as good as he.
Affirmative: Dhaka is bigger than all other cities in Bangladesh.
Negative: No other city in Bangladesh is as big as Dhaka.
Rule 9:
Than যুক্ত comparative degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
Than এর শেষের অংশ প্রথমে বসে + verb (tense ও person অনুযায়ী) + not + so/as + comparative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is stronger than you.
Negative: You are not as/so strong as he.
Affirmative: I am taller than you.
Negative: You are not as tall as me.
Rule 10:
As....as যুক্ত positive degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
প্রথম as এর পরিবর্তে not less শেষ as এর পরিবর্তে than বসে।
Affirmative: Robi and Rahat were as strong as Rakib.
Negative: Robi and Rahat were not less strong than Rakib.
Affirmative: He is as good as you.
Negative: He is not less good than you.
Rule 11:
Less...than যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
Less এর জায়গায় not as বসবে এবং than এর জায়গায় as বসবে।
Affirmative: He is less ugly than you said.
Negative: He is not as ugly as you said.
Affirmative: You are less good than he said.
Negative: You are not as good as he said.
Rule 12:
Too.....to যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
Too এর জায়গায় so বসে + Too এর পরের adjective/adverb বসে + that বসে + পনুরায় subject বসে। + tense অনুযায়ী can not/could not + প্রদত্ত to এর পরের অংশ বসে।
Affirmative: He is too weak to walk.
Negative: He is so weak that he can not walk.
Affirmative: The sum was too difficult for me to work out.
Negative: The sum was so difficult for me that I could not work out.

Assertive to interrogative

Rule 1:
অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে সাহায্যকারী verb যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় sentence টি যদি affirmative হয় তাহলে – Auxiliary verb + n’t + subject + বাকী + ?
Note- assertive এ will, can, shall, am থাকলে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় won’t, can’t, shan’t, ain’t হয়.
Assertive – He is in the school.
Interrogative – Isn’t he in the school?
Assertive – You can do the work.
Interrogative – Can’t you do the work?
Rule 2:
Auxiliary verb যুক্ত negative অর্থবোধক Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় negative উঠে যায়। এবং সাহায্যকারী verb প্রথমে বসে। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive – He is not in the school.
Interrogative – Is he in the school?
Assertive – I shall not go to Dhaka tomorrow.
Interrogative – Shall I go to Dhaka tomorrow?
Rule 3:
Auxiliary verb বিহীন Assertive sentence interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + subject + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive – He played good football.
Interrogative – Didn’t he play good football?
Assertive – He likes ice-cream.
Interrogative – Doesn’t he like ice-cream?
Rule 4:
Assertive sentence এ never থাকলে ever হয় এবং nothing থাকলে anything হয়। auxiliary verb না থাকলে Subject and tense অনুযায়ী প্রথমে আনতে হয়। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive – You never play football.
Interrogative - Do you ever play football?
Assertive – I have nothing to do?
Interrogative – Have I anything to do?
Note – Assertive sentence এর subject এ যদি nothing থাকে তাহলে nothing এর জায়গায় what বসে।
Assertive – Nothing can ruin him.
Interrogative – what can ruin him?
Rule 5:
Everybody/ everyone/all যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় Everybody/ everyone/all এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive – Everybody wants to be win.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t wish to be win?
Assertive – Everybody/All loves flowers.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t love flower?
Rule 6:
Nobody/none/no one interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Nobody/none/no one এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + বাকী অংশ + ?
Assertive – Nobody could ever count my love for you.
Interrogative – Who could ever count my love for you?
Assertive – No one can beat him.
Interrogative – Who can beat him?

Exclamatory to assertive

Rule 1:
Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে -
প্রথমে subject বসে + verb + a/an + very/great + adjective + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – What a nice flower it is!
Assertive – It is a very nice flower.
Exclamatory – What a genius student he is!
Assertive – He is a very genius student.
Rule 2:
Hurrah যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Hurrah এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of joy + Hurrah এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Hurrah! We have won the game.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.
Exclamatory – hurrah! I got the first prize.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that I have got the first prize.
Rule 3:
If দ্বারা exclamatory sentence শুরু হলে উক্ত sentence কে Assertive করার নিয়ম –
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I could fly!
Assertive – I wish I could fly
.
Rule 4:
প্রথমে had যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Subject + wish + পুনরায় subject বসে + had + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – Had I the pairs of birds!
Assertive – I wish I had the pairs of birds.
Exclamatory – Had I been a king!
Assertive – I wish I had been a king.
Rule 6:
প্রথমে Alas যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Alas এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of sorrow that + alas এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Alas! We lost the game!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that we lost the game.
Exclamatory – Alas! He failed in the examination!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that he failed in the examination.
Rule 7:
প্রথমে Fie যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Fie এর পরিবর্তে it is shameful that + fie এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory - Fie! He can not tolerate the poor.
Assertive – It is shameful that he can not tolerate the poor.
Exclamatory - Fie! He don’t respect seniors.
Assertive – It is shameful that he don’t respect seniors.
Rule 8:
প্রথমে Would that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
প্রদত্ত subject + wish + Would that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory - Would that I could be a player!
Assertive – I wish I could be a player.
Exclamatory - Would that I could be a child again!
Assertive – I wish I could be a child again.
Rule 9:
প্রথমে o that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Subject + wish + o that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – O that you were a cricketer!
Assertive – I wish you were a cricketer.
Exclamatory – O that i were a poet.
Assertive – I wish I were a poet.

Assertive to Exclamatory

Rule 1:
প্রথমে what বা how বসে + adjective বসে + subject + verb + বাকী অংশ( যদি থাকে) + !
Note – adjective এর পূর্বে a থাকলে what a বসে এবং a না থাকলে how বসে.
Assertive - It is a very beautiful place.
Exclamatory – What a beautiful place it is!
Assertive – The man is very honest.
Exclamatory – How honest the man is!
Rule 2:
Assertive sentence এ wish থাকলে Exclamatory করার সময় শুরুতে if/had বসে।
Assertive – I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Exclamatory – Had I the wings of bird!
Or, If I had the wings of a bird!
Assertive – I wish I were a king.
Exclamatory – If I were a king!
Rule 3:
Assertive sentence এ wish/desire Exclamatory sentence করার সময় এর শুরুতে If, had, o that, oh that ইত্যাদি বসে।
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I desire I were young again.
Exclamatory – Oh that I were young again.

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