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Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Build a Healthy Relationship

Solid connections permit you to express your independence (both with and without your accomplice), draw out the best in both of you, and energize growth. Especially on the off chance that you are in another relationship, it's best to set an establishment for a positive and sound relationship from the begin. By setting your emphasis on regard and supportive correspondence, you can appreciate a solid and fulfilling relationship.

Section 1

Imparting Effectively

1

Talk up. Try not to anticipate that your accomplice will have the capacity to peruse your psyche or "make sense of it." If you have a need or need to express something, you have to convey it yourself. It's not reasonable for you or your accomplice when you don't impart your necessities. Similarly, don't hold in the things that trouble you. In the event that something is pestering you, say something to your partner.

In the event that you don't know how to begin a discussion, say, "There's something at the forefront of my thoughts and I'd like it on the off chance that you tuned in." You can likewise say, "Something is disturbing me and I feel like we ought to discuss it."


2

Listen eagerly. Some portion of a sound relationship is knowing when to talk and when to tune in. Build up your listening abilities by not hindering and giving your accomplice a chance to complete their contemplations and sentiments. Genuinely tune in, and don't attempt to think of a reaction while your accomplice is talking.

Utilize undivided attention abilities by mirroring the substance and feelings of what your accomplice is stating. Say, "Let me ensure I get it. I hear you saying that you're vexed that I didn't disclose to you what time I would be home, and you wish I would have said something before on the grounds that you were concerned.

3

Make solid limits. Limits are not intended to make you feel caught; they are made to keep up regard and comprehend desires in the relationship. If something makes you feel awkward, bring it up and talk about how things need to change and how each of you will roll out improvements. In the event that one individual needs to fraternize and alternate does not, it's vital to define a limit of how much time is proper together and separated.

For instance, you might need to make sexual limits (being sexually selective) and social limits (having one night seven days assigned for companions or exercises).

Try not to give your accomplice a chance to control you and don't set out to control your accomplice. Defining limits implies regarding each other and discovering bargains to make the relationship function admirably.

4

Impart obviously. Without clear correspondence, a relationship can rapidly draw out the most noticeably awful in individuals. When you have a need or a need, express it to your accomplice plainly. Try not to avoid the real issue or say something you think will satisfy your accomplice when it makes you despondent. Take a stab at utilizing "I explanations" to express your sentiments, mention an objective fact, or impart your insight. I proclamations permit you to convey what needs be obviously and straightforwardly and assume liability for your own particular musings and sentiments while staying away from fault and allegations toward others.

To legitimately convey, say, " I think/feel/need… . whenever… .. since… ." For instance, "I feel disturb when you leave the entryway open in light of the fact that the room gets icy and drafty."


5

Express feelings. Impart your considerations and sentiments to your accomplice and remain open to the emotions that emerge. Indicate enthusiasm for your accomplice's emotions and bolster them amid upsetting circumstances. Interfacing candidly with your accomplice permits you to feel for their experience.

In case you're feeling candidly disengaged from your accomplice, begin making inquiries about sentiments (and don't fault or make presumptions). By finding your accomplice's emotions, you may start to feel more sympathy toward them.


6

Check in with each other. Set aside a few minutes intermittently to talk about the relationship. Some of the time changes happen or plans end up plainly occupied and you may miss time to associate or discuss things. You might need to raise relationship objectives and desires, as these can here and there change. Disregarding troublesome themes or trusting they will leave is one route for a relationship to crumble.

A case of checking in could be, "Hello, would you say you are alright after our contradiction yesterday? I simply needed to ensure there weren't any extra emotions or things we didn't resolve."

Inquire as to whether you are in agreement as far as relationship desires. You may examine moving in together, sexual fulfillment, marriage, kids, or plans to move. Be sure about what you need and how your accomplice fits in with that.

Section 2

Treating Each Other Well 


Make an establishment of regard. Connections can be fun and energizing at an opportune time, yet it critical to ensure that you and your accomplice are established in regard. Act in ways that request regard from your partner.[10] Strive to approach each other with deference at all circumstances, notwithstanding when you are distraught at each other.

Your accomplice's desires, contemplations, and sentiments have esteem. Impart to your accomplice that you consider the way they feel. Shared regard is an imperative piece of making a solid relationship work.

Converse with your accomplice about making regard in your relationship. Choose "do's" and "don'ts, for example, verbally abusing or sexual touch.

You may wish to execute "reasonable battling" rules. They are as follows:[12]

No debasing dialect

No accusing

No shouting

No utilization of compel

No discussion of separation/separating

Try not to attempt to tell your accomplice what they are considering/encountering/feeling

Remain in the present

Alternate talking

Utilize time outs with vital


2

Value each other. A solid relationship ought to be one in which you and your accomplice feel increased in value. Regularly, connections are worked from numerous little things included one top of the other. Discover the things your accomplice accomplishes for you and say "much obliged." Instead of concentrating on slip-ups your accomplice makes, concentrate on the ways your accomplice adds to your life.[13] When you see something, stand up and demonstrate your appreciation.

Ask your accomplice how they get a kick out of the chance to feel increased in value. Compose a note or a card, or attempt to state "thank you" regularly.

Tell your accomplice how you get a kick out of the chance to be valued. Let's assume, "It implies a great deal to me when you see the things I accomplish for you."

3

Get to know one another. It's anything but difficult to move from eye to eye time together to computerized correspondence. However, now and again implications can lose all sense of direction in interpretation or non-verbal correspondence moves toward becoming non-existent. Getting to know each other can help fortify your relationship and increment the bond you and your accomplice feel together.
Discover exercises that you can do together routinely. It can be as straightforward as getting a charge out of some espresso together every morning or perusing together around evening time.

Taking a stab at something new together can be a fun and energizing approach to get to know one another. You don't need to do anything insane — notwithstanding going out to supper at another eatery or attempting another food can be a fun encounter.


4

Give each other space. Nobody individual can satisfy everything and each part for someone else. Give your accomplice a chance to have time with loved ones and take part in side interests. It's essential for every individual to have their own particular companions and exercises that are delighted in all alone. While you might need to spend each minute together amid the start of the relationship, regard each sufficiently other to invest energy separated and realize that time spent separated doesn't mean anything negative for the relationship. Bolster your accomplice in looking after friendships.

Abstain from surrendering your companions or compelling your accomplice to surrender companions. It's vital to have companions and the enthusiastic bolster they give. In like manner, don't permit your accomplice to manage regardless of whether you can see your family.


5

Expect changes. Realize that your relationship will probably change. Permit development for yourself, your accomplice, and for the relationship itself. Perceive that adjustments in your relationship are open doors for new development. Change is unavoidable, so welcome changes and acknowledge that the relationship will adapt.

At the point when changes happen, take a full breath and manage them one by one.

Section 3

Enhancing an Unhealthy Relationship


1

See an advisor. In case you're gotten in undesirable examples and need to enhance them, request that your accomplice see an advisor together. An advisor can help you break unfortunate examples you may feel caught in, for example, hollering, faulting, confining, making suspicions, and not conveying viably. It can likewise help with enthusiastic evasion, altering conduct, and changing the perspectives you have of your relationship.[17] Seeing a specialist doesn't mean your relationship is destined — it means you're willing to cooperate to enhance it.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Gender

Gender:

Gender এর আভিধানিক অর্থ হল লিঙ্গ। অর্থাৎ Gender হচ্ছে কোন noun বা pronoun এর সেই রূপ যা দিয়ে প্রকাশ করা হয় ঐ noun বা pronoun টি স্ত্রী, পুরুষ, ক্লীব না কি উ ভয় লিঙ্গ।

Types of Gender

Gender সাধারনত চার প্রকার
  • Masculine Gender ( পুং লিঙ্গ)
  • Feminine Gender ( স্ত্রী লিঙ্গ)
  • Neuter Gender (ক্লীব লিঙ্গও)
  • Common Gender (উভয় লিঙ্গ)

i. Masculine Gender

যে noun বা pronoun দ্বারা কোন প্রাণীর পুরুষ বাচক অবস্থাকে বোঝায় তাকে Masculine Gender বলে। যেমন – Man, Boy, Brother, Bull, He, Dog, Cock ইত্যাদি।

ii. Feminine Gender

যে noun বা pronoun দ্বারা কোন প্রাণীর স্ত্রী বাচক অবস্থাকে বোঝায় তাকে Feminine Gender বলে। যেমন – Woman, Cow, Sister, Girl, She, Bitch, Hen ইত্যাদি।

iii. Neuter Gender

যে noun দ্বারা কোন প্রাণীর স্ত্রী বা পুরুষ কোন অবস্থাকে বোঝায় না তাকে Neuter Gender বলে। যেমন - Book, Pen, Table ইত্যাদি।

iv. Common Gender

যে noun বা pronoun দ্বারা কোন প্রাণীর পুরুষ বা স্ত্রী যে কোন অবস্থাকে বোঝায় তাকে Masculine Gender বলে। যেমন – Baby, Cousin, Student, Teacher, Citizen, Enemy ইত্যাদি।

Gender পরিবর্তন এর নিয়ম

Rule 1 –
কতগুলো noun এর ক্ষেত্রে সম্পূর্ণ ভিন্ন শব্দ ব্যবহার করে Feminine Gender করতে হয়। যেমন –
MasculineFeminine
FatherMother
BrotherSister
HusbandWife
KingQueen
FoxVixen
DogBitch
MaleFemale
UncleAunt
WizardWitch
BullCow
LordLady
SirMadam
TailorSeamstress
PapaMamma

  Rule 2 – 
কতগুলো noun এর শেষে “ess” যুক্ত করে Feminine Gender করতে হয়। যেমন-
MasculineFeminine
AuthorAuthoress
BaronBaroness
CountCountess
HeirHeiress
PeerPeeress
ProphetProphetess
StewardStewardess
ManagerManageress
GodGoddess
PriestPriestess
HostHostess
JewJewess
LionLioness
PoetPoetess

  Rule 3-
কতগুলো   Masculine noun এর শেষের vowel তুলে দেয়ার পর উহাদের শেষে “ess” যোগ করে Feminine করতে হয়। যেমন –
MasculineFeminine
ActorActress
ConductorConductress
HunterHuntress
InstructorInstructress
Songster Songstress
TraitorTraitors
BenefactorBenefactress
TigerTigress
Director  directressdirectress

Rule 4 –
কিছু কিছু Masculine noun এর ক্ষেত্রে কিছুটা ব্যতিক্রমী ভাবে “ess” যুক্ত হয়। যেমন –
MasculineFeminine
AbotAbbess
EmperorEmpress
MasterMiss
MurdererMurderess
DukeDuchess
MasterMistress
MrMrs

Rule 5 – 
কিছু Masculine noun এর শেষে a, ine, ix  যুক্ত করে Feminine করতে হয়। যেমন –
MasculineFeminine
DonDona
Signor Signora
ExecutorExecutrix
HeroHeroine
SultanSultana
ProsecutorProsecutrix  
ProprietorProprietrix

Rule 6 –
Compound noun গুলোর পুরুষবাচক অংশটিকে Feminine করে।
  1. প্রথম noun টিকে Feminine করে –
MasculineFeminine
Boy-babyGirl-baby
Bull-calfCow-calf
Billy-goatNanny-goat
Man-servantMaid-servant
Male-childFemale-child
Son-in-lawDaughter-in-law
Brother-in-lawSister-in-law
Male-servantFemale-servant
MankindWomankind
  1. পরের noun টিকে Feminine করে –
MasculineFeminine
FishermanFisherwoman
GentlemanGentlewoman
peacockPeahen
stepbrotherStepsister
GrandfatherGrandmother
GodfatherGodmother
LandlordLandlady
stepsonStepdaughter
Great-uncleGreat-aunt

Rule 7- 
প্রকৃতিতে বিরাজমান বিভিন্ন প্রাণহীন সত্তাকে প্রাণবন্ত সত্ত্বারুপে গণ্য করলে উহাদের বিশেষ বিশেষ বৈশিষ্ট্য অনুসারে উহাদের Gender গণ্য করা হয়।
  1. শক্তিশালী সত্ত্বাগুলোকে পুরুষবাচক বা  Masculine হিসেবে   গণ্য করা হয়। যেমন- sun, summer, winter, death, time, anger, war, thunder, fear, ইত্যাদি।
  2. সৌন্দর্য, কোমলতা, স্নিগ্ধতার ন্যায় নারীসুলভ গুনের অধিকারী সত্ত্বাগুলোকে Feminine হিসেবে গণ্য করা হয়। যেমন- Moon, peace, hope, nature, earth, night, spring ইত্যাদি।
  3. দেশ, রেলগাড়ি, জাহাজ সর্বদা Feminine হিসেবে গণ্য করা হয়। 
    যেমন
    - The ship reflects her beauty.
    - Our country lost her famous persons.
    Rule 8-
    কিছু noun সর্বদা Feminine রুপে ব্যবহার হয়। এদের কোন Masculine নেই। যেমন – nurse, virgin, prude, serin, shrew ইত্যাদি।

    Rule 9 –
    আবার কতগুলো noun সর্বদা Masculine হিসেবে গণ্য করা হয়।এদের কোন Feminine নেই। যেমন – judge, chairman, knight, parson, captain.

    Sunday, April 16, 2017

    Sentence

    Definition:
    A sentence is a word or group of words that must expresses a complete idea or sense or meaning and that may consists of a subject and a verb.
    Also it may have an object or a complement and the words must be order properly.
    যে শব্দ বা শব্দ সমষ্টি দ্বারা সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ পায় এবং যা সাধারণত কর্তা এবং ক্রিয়া দ্বারা গঠিত তাকে sentence বা বাক্য বলা হয় ।
    Example:
    - We practice English everyday. (Here we is subject, practice is verb, English is object and everyday is adverb)
    Basically there are two parts of a sentence: (একটি Sentence এ মূলত দুটি অংশ থাকে)
    • Subject and
    • Predicate
    Subject: A subject of a sentence is a person or thing about which something is said or written.
    Predicate: And the Predicate that says what the Subject does.
    যে ব্যক্তি বা বস্তু সম্পর্কে কোনকিছু বলা বা লিখা হয় তাকে Subject বা কর্তা বলে ।
    যা subject বা কর্তা সম্পর্কে বলে বা করে বা লিখে তাকে Predicate বলা হয় ।
    In the above example ‘We’ is subject and ‘practice English everyday’ is Predicate. A sentence usually starts with a subject and then predicate comes.
    N. B.: In some case like order, advice or request subject is not mentioned. It is userstood.
    Example:
    - (You) Keep quite. 
    - (You) Take care of your health.
    - (I) Thank you.
    And sometimes sentence starts with the predicate and then subject comes.
    Example:
    - Long live Bangladesh 
    - Down went the Titanic.

    Kinds of Sentence:
    Sentence can be classified into five categories according to the meaning or functions.
    They are:-
    1. Assertive Sentence
    2. Interrogative Sentence
    3. Imperative Sentence
    4. Optative Sentence
    5. Exclamatory Sentence


    Assertive Sentence:

    An assertive sentence is a simple statement or assertion, either affirmative or negative.
    Pattern:
    Subject + verb + Object/complement/adverb
    Example:
    -English is an International Language. (Affirmative)
    -We do not do bad things. (Negative)
    -Everybody should know English. (Modal auxiliaries)


    Interrogative Sentence:

    Interrogative sentence is a sentence that ask question to replay about some person or things and ends with a question mark (?).
    There are two ways to form an interrogative sentence.
    I. Begins with helping verbs (am, is, are, was, were, have, had) or modal auxiliaries (shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might etc.).
    Example:
    - Do you have your assignment ready?
    - Does he speak English?
    - Did she work abroad?
    - Should I go there?
    - Can you hear the sound?
    - Don’t you want any food? (Negative)
    II. Begins with some specific words like who, which, what, when, where, why, how, whom, how much, how many. These are known as ‘WH’ questions.
    Example:
    - How is your business going on?
    - Who fixed the computer?
    - Whom do you support?
    - What are you expecting from me?
    - What time is it now?
    - How many people have died there?


    Imperative Sentence:

    A sentence that expresses a request, command, order, advice, suggestion is an imperative sentence.
    In a imperative sentence, subject is usually unexpressed, it is understood.
    Pattern:
    Subject (Invisible) + verb + object / where
    Example:
    - Take care of you. 
    - Give me the pen.
    - Do it now.
    - Be honest.
    - Come here
    - Never tell a lie
    - Do not laugh at others helplessness.
    - Let him go there.
    Clear Head: You must do your duty. (It is assertive, not imperative.)


    Optative Sentence:

    Wish, desire, prayer are expressed by the Optative sentence.
    Pattern:
    May + AssertiveExample:
    - May you live long.
    - May Allah bless you.
    - Wish you all the best.
    - Long live Bangladesh (can be formed without ‘may’)


    Exclamatory Sentence:

    Exclamatory is a sentence which expresses strong/sudden feeling or emotion like surprise, pain, delight, anger, disgust etc.
    Pattern:
    Alas/ Hurrah/ Bravo/ What/ How etc. + Others
    Example:
    - Hurrah! Our cricket team has won the series.
    - Alas! He has failed the competition.
    - Bravo! You have done a great job.
    - What a talent-full girl she is!
    - How sweetly the cuckoo sings!
    - What a wonderful land Bangladesh is!
    - Were I a Super Hero!
    - What a pity!
    - Fantastic!
    - What an idea!
    - Put that down now!
    - Leave the package at the door.
    - Walk softly, please.


    Structure of a Sentence:
    According to structure sentence are three types.
    I. Simple Sentence.
    II. Complex Sentence.
    III. Compound Sentence.

    I. Simple Sentence:

    Simple sentence is structured with only one subject and one finite verb.
    Simple sentence has only one independent clause.
    Pattern: 
    Subject + finite verb + complement
    Exmaple:- Bangladesh is a populated country
    - Life is not a bed of roses
    - Human is the superior in this planet.

    II. Complex Sentence:

    A sentence consisting of one principal clause and one or more sub-ordinate clauses is a complex sentence.
    Example:
    - If you work hard, you will shine in life. (Here, ‘if you work hard’ is sub-ordinate clause and ‘you will shine in life’ is Main or principal clause)
    Sub-ordinate clause begins with conjunctions like who, which, that, when, how, where, while, if, whether, because, since, as, though, although, till, until, unless, before, after, so that, whenever, wherever, whoever, whatever etc.
    Example:- I know where he lives.
    - I do not know what his name is.
    - While there is life there is hope
    - We eat so that we can survive. 

    III. Compound Sentence:

    A sentence having more than one principal clauses linked by one or more coordinating conjunctions preceded by a comma is called compound sentence.
    Conjunctions are used in compound sentences are and, but, or, for, nor, also, however, moreover, thus, so, therefore, else, still, as well as, accordingly, otherwise, yet, not yet, but also, either or, neither nor, on the contrary etc.
    Example:
    - Respect others, and others will respect you.
    - He loves us, but he does not show it.

    Thanks Everybody...

    Saturday, April 15, 2017

    Prepositions


    Prepositions:
    By the word preposition means position something before something. And in English grammar-
    A preposition is a word placed or positioned before a noun or a pronoun or noun equivalent to show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.
    The following are the words used as preposition in the sentence-
    For, of, on, at, in, to, off, by, up, with, from, into, within, like, until, above, about, against, under, before, after, among, along, across, around, behind, bellow, beneath, beside, between, beyond, down, during, except, inside, near, since, toward, through and upon.

    Role or function of preposition in a sentence:
    A preposition sits before a noun or a pronoun to show noun’s or pronoun’s relationship to another word in the sentence. Preposition helps to construct a sentence.
    Example:
    - He is looking for papers.
    - Rifat lives in Dhaka.
    - Place the book on the table.
    - I will go there after breakfast.
    - Look at the sky clearly.
    - You should stand by him.

    Prepositions are five different kinds:

    i. Simple Preposition such as in, at, by, of, for, on, over, under, up, to, from, out, about, under, with etc.
    - He goes to school.
    - Maruf is about seven.
    - These people are coming from abroad.
    ii. Double Preposition such as into, onto, within, without, from, among, toward, behind etc.
    - He will be back within three days.
    - We cannot do this job without you.
    - She is different among the girls.
    iii. Compound or Phrasal or Complex Prepositions are made of two or more words. Such as instead of, in front of, in between, out of, in behalf of, in place of, except for, throughout, underneath, on account of, according to etc.
    - Rahat is talking in behalf of his team.
    - Musfiq is playing in place of Rasel.
    - They carried on rescue mission in spite of bad weather.
    - Her GPA is 3.50 out of 4.00
    iv. Participial Preposition.
    Present or Past Participles can be used as Prepositions. Such as concerning, regarding, considering, pending etc.
    Example:
    - What does he know regarding this proposal?
    - Considering the quality, the price is not high.

    Following are the specific area to use prepositions.

    i. Preposition of Place, Position and Direction (in, at, on, by, next, to, beside, )
    In
    At
    On
    By
    Above
    To
    Towards
    From
    Into
    In the room.
    At the window. At the office.
    On the table.
    Sitting by the woman.
    Above the sky.
    Go to university.
    Towards east.
    Fled from home.
    Jumped into the well.

    ii. Preposition of time
    At
    After
    Before
    By
    During
    From
    For
    In
    On
    Since
    Within
    throughout
    At 10 a.m., at dawn, at noon, at night, at an early age.
    After 3 O’clock, after his arrival.
    Before the 15th July.
    By 4 p.m.
    During five years. During the whole day/summer, during five years.
    From 1st January.
    For a week/month.
    In June, in 2010, in the morning/evening/afternoon.
    On Sunday.
    Since he comes.
    Within three days.
    Throughout the year.

    iii. Preposition of Reason or Purpose
    For
    Form
    Of
    Through
    With
    For the good of the people, died for the country.
    Died from fatigue, suffering from fever/cold.
    Died of cancer.
    Lost his pen through negligence
    Trembles with fear shivers with fever.

    Conjunction:


    Conjunction:
    A conjunction is a part of speech or word that connects –
    - One word to another word.
    - One word to another clause.
    - One sentence to another sentence.
    The conjunctions are and, but, or, for, nor, so, yet, because, if, whether, lest, unless, as, since, how, when, where, while, why, till, until, after, before, however, as soon as, though and than.
    Example:
    One word to another word:
    - Rupom and Rifat are two brothers. (noun to noun)
    - Rimi and you have done this work. (Noun to pronoun)
    - You and I will go there. (Pronoun to pronoun)
    - The old man sat down and wept. (verb to verb)
    - We are sad but hopeful. (adjective to adjective)
    - A cat moves slowly and silently. (Adverb to adverb)
    - The bird flies through and through the sky. (preposition to preposition)
    One word to another clause:
    - He is so weak that he cannot walk.
    - Such was her beauty that everybody loved her.
    One sentence to another sentence:
    - I trust him because he is honest.
    - He says that he will do it.
    - They will come if they are allowed here.
    - It is a long time since I saw you last.
    - You must wait here until your father comes back.
    - I wish to know whether he will come or not.

    There are different types of conjunctions:

    - Coordinate Conjunction
    - Subordinate Conjunction
    - Correlative conjunction

    Coordinate Conjunction:

    Coordinate conjunctions such as and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet are used to join individual words, phrases and independent clauses.
    Example:
    - She stood first and got a prize.
    - He is sad but hopeful.
    - The snake is small but dangerous. 
    - You must read or you may fail in the examination.

    Subordinate Conjunction:

    The subordinate clause such as since, because, although, as, until etc. are used to join an independent clause to a dependent clause.
    The subordinate conjunctions are used before the dependent clauses. Dependent clause can be placed before or after the independent clauses.
    Example:
    - He never gives up until he wins. 
    - Since she had the headache, she did not go to work.
    - Though he loved her cousin, he married another one.
    - Despite calling several times, she never received a replay.

    Correlative conjunctions:

    Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions such as both…and, either…..or, neither……nor etc. used in the sentences to link words, phrases and clauses.
    Correlative conjunctions connect two words or phrases or clauses those have the similar structure and are grammatically similar. That means nouns are linked to nouns, adjectives to adjectives, prepositional phrases to prepositional phrases.
    Correlatives conjunctions are:
    Both….and, either….or, neither….nor, not only….but also, so….that, such….that, no sooner….than, hardly….when, scarcely….when, else….than, else….but.
    Example:
    - He is both a fool and a knave. (noun to noun)
    - She is both wise and good. (adjective to adjective)
    - He must either work or go. (verb to verb)
    - He behaved neither wisely nor kindly. (adverb to adverb)
    - He is so tired that he cannot run.
    - Such was her beauty that everybody loved her.
    - No sooner had I sat down than they left the room.
    - Hardly had I left the room when it began to rain.
    - Scarcely had I left the room when it began to rain.
    - She has none else than her mother.
    - She has none else but her mother.

    Interjection


    Interjection:
    The part of speech that expresses strong feeling or sudden emotions or sentiment is called interjection or exclamation.
    Interjections are not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.
    Example:
    - Oh no, I missed the schedule of the class. (express failure)
    - Hey! Don’t you hear me? (calling attention)
    - Hey! Take it easy. (calling attention)
    - Uh, I forget the answer. (Express hesitation)
    - Hurrah! We have won the match. (Express joy)
    - Wow! She is amazing. (Express surprise)

    Adverb

     Adverb
    An adverb is a word which modifies or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb or any other words or phrases in the sentence such as quickly, firmly, lightly, carefully, extremely etc.
    Example:- The leopard runs quickly. ( Here quickly modifies the verb)
    - He works extremely hard. (here extremely modifies the adverb)
    - Most of our countrymen are very poor. (Here very modifies the adjective)
    - I absolutely have idea about the matter. 

    Function of adverb in a sentence:
    Adverb adds information and impression about time, manner, place etc. in a sentence.
    Form of Adverbs:
    Many adverbs those express how an action is performed are end in ‘ly’. But many others like fast, well, never, least, more, far, now, very, just, still etc.

    Kinds of Adverbs:

    There are different kinds of adverb according to their functions in a sentence.
    i. Adverbs of Time: Indicate the time of an action and answer the question ‘when’?
    Such as now, soon, still, then, today, yet, since, back, ago, already, before, after, recently, today, lately, tomorrow, once, someday, early etc.
    Example:- I have already finished my job.
    - I will do it now.
    - The result will be published tomorrow.

    ii. Adverbs of Manner: Express the manner of an action and answer the question ‘How’?
    Such as happily, slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, easily, fast, bravely, hard, well, badly etc.
    Example:- Rafat is speaking quietly
    - He is doing the job carefully.
    - The boy is crying loudly.

    iii. Adverbs of Place: Indicate the place of an action and answer the question ‘Where’?
    Such as here, there, up, down, in, out, by, hither, thither, where, anywhere, somewhere, everywhere, nowhere etc.
    Example:- Go out.
    - I love to be here.
    - People still live there.

    iv. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity: Express quantity and answer the question ‘How much/ How far/ to what extent’?
    Such as extremely, fully, quite, almost, very much, too, a lot, totally, absolutely, fairly, hardly, rather etc.
    Example:- He is quite wrong.
    - She is fully cured.
    - He is bad enough to kill you.

    v. Adverbs of Affirmation and negation: Indicate assertion and express the one’s reaction to question.
    Such as yes, no, yeah
    Example:- Yes, I can.
    - No, she isn’t.

    vi. Adverbs of Frequency: Express the frequency of an action and answer the question “How often”?
    Such as never, ever, always, often, seldom, everyday, sometimes, usually, normally, frequently, rarely, hardly, scarcely, once a week etc.
    Example:- He always helps the poor.
    - The barking dog seldom bites.

    vii. Adverbs of reason: Express the reason and make the conclusion.
    Such as hence, therefore, thence etc.
    Example:- He therefore resigned the job.

    Conjunctive Adverb:

    Conjunctive adverb is used to join two clauses together.
    Such as also, finally, furthermore, consequently, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, nevertheless, meanwhile, next, nonetheless, otherwise, then, still, thus and therefore.
    N.B: Conjunctive Adverb joins two independent clauses with a semi-colon.
    Example:- The people waited for an hour; finally the train comes to the station.
    - The police men searched the market; indeed the gunman has escaped through the basement door. 

    Position of Adverb:

    General positions of adverbs are as follows:
    i. Adverbs of time usually come at the end of a sentence or at the beginning of sentence.
    Example:- It may rain today.
    - Last night I dreamt a sweet dream.

    ii. Adverbs of place usually follow the verb.
    Example:- The doctor is in.
    - They were everywhere.

    iii. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity come before the verb, adjective or adverb.
    Example:- He is fairly good.
    - You are quite wrong.
    - He can run very fast

     

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